Executive functions is an umbrella term for cognitive processes that regulate, control, and manage other cognitive processes, such as planning,working memory, attention, problem solving, verbal reasoning, inhibition, mental flexibility, task switching and initiation and monitoring of actions.

The executive system is a theorised cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes. It is responsible for executive functions, executive skills, supervisory attentional system, or cognitive control.

The prefrontal areas of the frontal lobe are necessary but not sufficient for carrying out these functions.

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